Childhood Vaccination: Aluminum
"The success of aluminium as a vaccine adjuvant is due to its potent stimulatory eﬀects on the immune system. In fact, with the exception of attenuated viruses (eg. MMR), in the absence of aluminium most antigenic compounds (eg. viral or bacterial compounds used in vaccines) fail to launch an adequate immune response, suggesting that a signiﬁcant part of the immuno-stimulatory eﬀects of vaccines may be driven by the aluminium adjuvant itself." - Tomljenovic et al 2012 36
"The use of adjuvants enables the use of less antigen (eg. viral or bacterial compounds) to achieve the desired immune response, and this reduces vaccine production costs. With a few exceptions, adjuvants are foreign to the body and cause adverse reactions." - Scheibner 2000 13
Aluminum is not a 'safe' substance
Despite Aluminum being one of the most abundant metals on earth, Aluminum is by no means 'safe'.
"Aluminum is an 'excitotoxin', a substance that damages neurons". - Bernardo et al 2012 1 (Excitotoxins bind to certain receptors and may cause neuron cell death.2)
"Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure or ototoxicity) and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such asmultiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, alcoholismor alcohol withdrawal and Huntington's disease."3
"We emphasize the DNA damaging potential by aluminium. Aluminium acts as a pro-oxidant in the cells. Aluminium induces DNA damage in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes (a type of immune cell) at a concentration of 10 mcg/ml". - Bharathi et al 2008 37 (The Infanrix-hexa vaccine contains an aluminium concentration of 1640 mcg/ml, surpassing the threshold for DNA damage 164 times over) 38
"Aluminum in various forms can be toxic to the nervous system. The widespread presence in the human environment may underlie a number of central nervous system disorders. The continued use of aluminum adjuvants in various vaccines for children as well as the general public may be of significant concern. In particular, aluminum presented in this form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences." - Tomljenovic et al 2011 4
"Aluminum was determined to stand out among all the ions studied for its remarkable ability to induce reactive oxygen species (which promotes cell death), even compared with mercury and lead. Aluminum induced a response that was a factor of seven higher than that of mercury and a factor of three higher than that of lead. Since aluminum is a known neurotoxin, there is no safe level. The central nervous system is particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of aluminum." - Seneff et al 2012 33Aluminum has been used numerous times in past scientific experiments with animals (monkeys, rabbits, and cats) specifically to induce chronic epileptic seizures (Rogozea et al 1976; Wyler et al 1978; David 1982; Bostantjopoulou et al 1990). 20-23
Symptoms of Aluminum toxicity
Musculoskeletal disorders - Muscle pain and weakness, macrophagic myofasciitis (pain and inflammation of muscles). Bone pain and weakness, premature osteoporosis (thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density), arthritis, fractures (particularly of the ribs and pelvis), bone deformity - due to the increased rate of growth and remodeling usually involving the epiphyseal plates (ie, femur, wrist), thoracic (rib) cage abnormalities, lumbar scoliosis (curving of the spine sideways), kyphosis (curving of the spine leading to a hunchback), rickets (softening of bone leading to bone deformities), craniosynostosis (premature ossification of the skull and obliteration of the sutures in infants).Infants are significantly more vulnerable to neurotoxins, such as Aluminum, than adults
Neurological disorders - Encephalitis (acute inflammation of the brain), dementia (loss of brain function affecting memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior), difficulty learning, inability to concentrate, lack of co-ordination, confusion, disorientation, extreme nervousness, speech impairment, mutism (in infants and children), seizures, multiple sclerosis (degradation of the central nervous system), Guillain-Barré syndrome ( paralysis and loss of reflexes), transverse myelitis (erosion of spinal cord), facial palsy
Iron anemia - Due to the interference of aluminum with iron metabolism
Liver and kidney disorders - Decreased liver and kidney function, liver and kidney disease
Gastrointestinal disorders - Nausea, flatulence, heartburn, stomach and intestinal ulcers, intestinal colic, gastrointestinal disease.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders - Idiopathic thrombocytopenia
Immune System Disorders - Anaphylaxis and/or other generalized hypersensitivity reactions, inflammatory arthritis/arthralgia, fever, and dermatologic reactions such as erythema, systemic lupus erythematosus
Cardiac Disorders - Cardiac arrhythmias
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders - Asthma
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders - Angioedema, erythema
"During prenatal and early postnatal development the brain is extremely vulnerable to neurotoxic insults. Not only are these highly sensitive periods of rapid brain development in general but also, the blood brain barrier (BBB) is incomplete and thus more permeable to toxic substances during this time. Further, immune challenges during early development, including those induced by vaccines, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of nervous and immune system function. Additionally, the immature renal system of neonates signiﬁcantly compromises their ability to eliminate environmental toxicants. For all these reasons, children are at much greater risk of adverse reactions from aluminium adjuvants than adults." - Tomljenovic et al. 2011 5
The artificial immune response created by aluminium is likely too potent for an infant
"Immune stimulation induced by vaccinations may be much greater in magnitude than that resulting from natural infections. The main reason for this is that early-life immune responses (before 6 months of age) are weaker and of shorter duration than those elicited in immunologically mature hosts. Thus, to provoke and sustain an adequate B-cell immune response (the principal function of B-cells is to make antibodies against viruses, bacteria etc) in neonates, strong immune adjuvants such as aluminium, as well as repeated closely spaced booster doses are needed. In contrast, during the course of natural infections, children are in most cases exposed to one pathogenic agent at a time (i.e., measles only as opposed to measles, mumps, and rubella all at once). This allows for a more subtle priming of the immature immune system, as well as brain recovery from the potential neuroimmune challenge." - Tomljenovic et al. 2011 5
The level of Aluminum in pediatric vaccines is well over the threshold for toxicity
A 2004 statement by the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), a group that monitors oral and injectable nutritional products for safety and side effects, states the daily limit of aluminum is 5 mcg per kilogram of body weight (Charney et al. 2004).6
An average 6 week old weighs 4.5kg, measures 55cm in length, and has just 400mL of blood. For an infant of this size, the daily allowable limit of injectable aluminum is 22.5mcg. A 6 week old infant receiving the Infanrix and Synflorix vaccinations as per NZ schedule, will receive 1320mcg of aluminum in one sitting, grossly exceeding the daily allowable limit of 22.5mcg aluminum for a 6 week old, 59 times over. This will be repeated at 3 months, again 5 months, and at 15 months a final 4th dose of Synflorix will be administered. Following the NZ Immunization Schedule, by the time an infant has reached 15 months old, he or she will have received 6260mcg of aluminum.7,8
New Zealand Immunisation Schedule 2011
Diseases covered and Vaccines
Human Papillomavirus - 3 doses given over 6 months (GARDASILTM)
*Synflorix will be available when existing stocks of Prevenar are used up.
Aluminum Levels in NZ Childhood Vaccines 2011
Aluminium hydroxide & aluminium phosphate
Amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulphate
Aluminium hydroxide (hydrated)
Amorphpus aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulphate
For more information on US vaccination schedules and vaccine ingredients:
Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 0 Through 6 Years, or 7 Through 18 Years —United States 2011
Vaccine Excipient & Media Summary, Part 1 & 2 - CDC
Package Inserts and Manufacturers for some US Licensed Vaccines and Immunoglobulins
Aluminum in the NZ vaccine schedule has increased 5.5 fold
In the 1980's the amount of aluminum in the NZ vaccine schedule was 1120mcg. Today, in 2013, the amount is 6150mcg. Perhaps most alarming was the year 2006 when the schedule included a whopping 10105mcg aluminum. This was largely due to the inclusion of the Meningcoccal group B vaccine, a three dose regimen that included 6600mcg aluminum.15, 16
Additional Aluminum is leached into vaccines via glass vials
"Based on concerns that the mercury in thimerosal (used as a preservative in vaccines) might be contributing to autism, the industry made an effort to significantly reduce the amount of mercury present in vaccines beginning in the late 1990's. In parallel, they began storing the vaccines in individualized glass vials—to avoid the ostensible need for a preservative to reduce the danger of contaminating repeated invasions of multidose vials. However, this raises another concern, as aluminum can be leached out of the glass vial and the rubber stopper during storage. Glass contains aluminum oxide at levels ranging from 1.9% to 5.8%. Leaching from a container is an ongoing process until the product is used." - Seneff et al 2012 33
If the body is overloaded with Aluminum it will deposit it in various organs
"Approximately 95% of aluminum in the body becomes bound to transferrin (plasma protein that transports iron through the blood to the liver, spleen and bone marrow) and albumin (main protein in human blood) in blood vessels and is then excreted via the kidneys. If a significant load exceeds the body's excretory capacity, the excess is deposited in various tissues, including bone, brain, liver, heart, spleen, and muscle. This accumulation causes morbidity and mortality through various mechanisms." - Bernardo et al. 2012 1
Once inside the body, Aluminum can take years to be cleared
"The elimination half-life of aluminum from the human brain is 7 years, this can result in cumulative damage via the element's interference with neuron transport and assembly." - Bernardo et al. 2012 1
"Aluminium accumulates in the brain with age and exposure is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases." - Exley & Vickers 2014 40
"In patients with macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) Aluminum was shown to persist at the site of injection from several months up to 8 years following vaccination. Patients were found to suffer from diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, muscle weakness and in some cases, multiple sclerosis. Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) has been specifically attributed to aluminum adjuvants in recipients of hepatitis A and B and tetanus toxoid (Td) vaccines. MMF Electron microscopy and microanalytical analysis showed that the appearance of MMF lesions was due to long-term persistence of aluminum adjuvants at the site of injections and concomitant ongoing local immune reactions." - Tomljenovic et al. 2011 4
Even minimal exposure to Aluminum through vaccines can provoke autoimmune disorders
"Experimental evidence shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants, or repeated stimulation of the immune system by the same antigen, can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity." - Tomljenovic et al. 2011 5
"Aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form (from vaccines) carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences." - Tomljenovic et al. 2011 4
"Vaccines can induce the appearances of autoantibodies, enigmatic inﬂammatory condition, and overt autoimmune disease. Of which, non-speciﬁc manifestations such as arthritis, neuronal damage, fatigue, encephalitis and vasculitis were frequently described." - Shoenfeld et al, 2010 26
"A variety of conditions encompassed by the 'Autoimmune/inﬂammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants' (ASIA) have been linked to exposure to aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants. These conditions include: Siliconosis, the Gulf war syndrome (GWS), the macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF), and post-vaccination phenomena. Furthermore, these four diseases share a similar complex of signs and symptoms: Myalgia (muscle pain), myositis (inflamed, damaged muscles) or muscle weakness, arthralgia (pain in joints) and/or arthritis (inflammation of joints), chronic fatigue, un-refreshing sleep or sleep disturbances, neurological manifestations (especially associated with demyelination (degeneration of nerves)), cognitive impairment, memory loss, pyrexia (fever), dry mouth, appearance of auto-antibodies or antibodies directed at the suspected adjuvant, irritable bowel syndrome, evolvement of an autoimmune disease (i.e. Multiple Sclerosis)." - Tomljenovic et al. 2011 5
"Recently, autoantibody, production was studied in 92 healthy medical workers after influenza vaccination. For subjects with autoantibodies before vaccination, increased titers were documented 1 and 6 months post-vaccination in 11% and 13% of them respectively. Moreover 4 participants developed de novo (new) autoantibodies 6 months after vaccination, one of them with very high titers alluding to a possible long-lasting effect. In addition to the appearance of autoantibodies, clinical presentations or mild exacerbations of an autoimmune disease were occasionally observed following vaccinations. Autoimmune diseases develop in individuals who are genetically susceptible after their immune system is triggered (i.e., by infection or vaccine). Avoiding such a triggering stimulus may allow an individual to remain asymptomatic throughout his or her life." - Agmon-Levin 2009 24
"The increased risk of autoimmunity among recipients of a certain vaccine may stem not only from its antigenic-mediated responses but also from other constituents of the vaccine, such as yeast, adjuvant and preservative. For example adjuvants have been added to vaccines to improve their immunogenicity. However, alongside their supportive role they were found to themselves inflict an illness of autoimmune nature, defined as "adjuvant disease". - Agmon-Levin 2009 24
"Influenza vaccine, like most human vaccines, is capable of inducing immune responses and includes also an adjuvant and other components that can increase its autoimmune pathogenicity (ability to cause harm). Thus, for the minority of individuals who are probably genetically susceptible, as well as for patients with active Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease, the influenza vaccine, among others, may trigger an overt autoimmune disease." - Agmon-Levin 2009 24
"The latency period between immunization and autoimmunity ranges between days to years. An individuals susceptibility (for example, relating to genetic factors) might have an important role in vaccine–autoimmunity interactions." - Agmon-Levin 2009 25
"Aluminum has a range of mechanisms inwhich it causes inflammation:
- Aluminum is a pro-oxidant (induces oxidative stress) which inturn induces an inflammation response.
- Aluminum induces an inflammation response known as NALP3 inflammasome (associated with autoimmune disease).
- Aluminum itself can be antigenic (elicits the response of antibodies)." - Exly et al, 2010 27
"Aluminum (found in vaccines) is a potential factor for the induction of inflammation in Crohn's disease (chronic inflammation of the intestines), and its immune activities share many characteristics with the immune pathology of Crohn's disease. The Crohn's disease mucosa is confronted with numerous inappropriate bacterial components adsorbed on the aluminum compound surface, constituting a pro-inflammatory supra-adjuvant. Aluminum fits the diagnostic criteria of the newly described autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA)." - Lerner 2012 34
Other studies correlating Aluminum with illness
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is characterized by specific muscle lesions with long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide at the site of previous immunization. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions show an ongoing local immune reaction, and are detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared subsequently to vaccination. Affected patients mainly complain of arthromyalgias (joint and muscle pain), chronic fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. One-third of patients with macrophagic myofasciitis develop autoimmune disease.17, 18, 19
In preterm infants, prolonged intravenous feeding with solutions containing aluminum is associated with impaired neurologic development. We estimate that for infants receiving full intravenous feeding (approx 180ml per kilogram every 24 hours) with a mean aluminum intake of 45μg per kilogram per day, the expected reduction in the Bayley Mental Development Index (a score of 50 to 150) would be, on average, one point per day of intravenous feeding. The former (infants who received an intravenous feeding solution with higher amounts of aluminum) were significantly more likely (39 percent, vs. 17 percent of the latter group; P = 0.03) to have a Mental Development Index of less than 85, increasing their risk of subsequent educational problems.28 (The Infanrix-hexa vaccine contains an aluminium concentration of 1640 mcg per dose. Using the above calculation in which an infant receiving 45ug (equivalent to mcg) per day would lose one point per day in the Bayley Mental Development Index, a 6 week infant weighing 4.5kg receiving the infanrix-hexa would suffer brain damage equivalent to the loss of 36.4 points.) 38
Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the (aluminum) adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. Subsequent testing showed:
The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with Gulf War Illness (GWI).29
- Motor deficits expressed as a progressive decrease in strength (50%).
- Significant cognitive deficits in water-maze learning (4.3 vs 0.2 errors per trial).
- Significant motor neuron loss in the lumbar spinal cord (35%).
- Significantly increased numbers of astrocytes (cells that are expressed when the nervous system is injured and needs repair) in the lumbar spinal cord (350%).
- Significantly increased activated caspase-3 (protein that promotes programmed cell death) labeling in lumbar spinal cord (255%) and primary motor cortex (192%).
Vaccine-exposed and saline-injected control infants (macaques) underwent MRI and PET imaging at approximately 4 and 6 months of age, representing two specific timeframes within the vaccination schedule. Maturational changes in amygdala (part of the brain involved in processing and expressing emotions) volume was significantly altered in infant macaques receiving the vaccine schedule (the complete US vaccine schedule that was given in 1994-1999).30
We conclude that exposure of Hepa1-6 cells (mouse liver cells) to a low dose of (aluminum) adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine leads to loss of mitochondrial integrity, apoptosis (programmed cell death) induction, and cell death.31
Studies show Aluminum is also correlated with Autism
Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. Our results show that:
(i) children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines;
(ii) the increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r = 0.92, p < 0.0001); and
(iii) a significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to preschool children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3–4 months of age (Pearson r = 0.89–0.94, p = 0.0018–0.0248).
The data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal.12
Our results provide strong evidence supporting a link between autism and the aluminum in vaccines. We propose that children with the autism diagnosis are especially vulnerable to toxic metals such as aluminum and mercury due to insufficient serum sulfate and glutathione. A strong correlation between autism and the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) vaccine is also observed, which may be partially explained via an increased sensitivity to acetaminophen administered to control fever.33
The higher the proportion of children receiving recommended vaccinations, the higher was the prevalence of autism or speech or language impairment. A 1% increase in vaccination was associated with an additional 680 children having autism or speech or language impairment. The aluminum in vaccines has been associated with disorders in the central nervous system as well as with autism. Combining mercury and aluminum magniﬁes the toxicity of each. Both metals also are known to suppress the immune system; thus, a susceptible person may not be able to mount an effective immunological response to the live viruses found in certain vaccines.32
The correlation between autism spectrum disorder rate and aluminium adjuvant amounts appears to be dose-dependent and satisfies 8 of 9 Hill criteria for causality. These current data implicate aluminium injected in early postnatal life in some central nervous system alterations that may be relevant for a better understanding of the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder.35
In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome.39
Ingested Aluminum is not a valid comparison to injected Aluminum.
In healthy subjects, only 0.3% of orally administered aluminum is absorbed via the GI tract and the kidneys effectively eliminate aluminum from the human body. It is only when the GI barrier is bypassed, such as intravenous infusion or in the presence of advanced renal dysfunction, that aluminum has the potential to accumulate. As an example, with intravenously infused aluminum, 40% is retained in adults and up to 75% is retained in neonates.1Additionally...
Although the half-life of aluminum consumed through the diet is short (approx 24hr) the same cannot be assumed for aluminum in vaccines because the molecular size of most aluminum in vaccines (24-83 kDa) is higher than what the human kidney or other bodily filtering systems can process (18 kDa).39
Aluminum has never been tested by the FDA for safety
Aluminum has been exempted from testing for safety by the FDA and has been classified as GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe). It has never been tested by the FDA for its safety. Yet, there are numerous studies confirming the adverse effects of aluminum. This means vaccine manufacturers can technically say Aluminum is 'safe', even though it's a neurotoxin. There are no enforceable regulations on Aluminum. Agencies such as the EPA or FDA cannot enforce any organization to comply with their recommendations.10, 11
Aluminum does not have to be used in vaccines
Calcium phosphate adjuvant has been used for simultaneous vaccination with diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, BCG, yellow fever, measles and hepatitis B vaccines and with allergen. The advantage of this adjuvant has been seen to be that it is a normal constituent of the body and is better tolerated and absorbed than other adjuvants. It entraps antigens very efficiently and allows slow release of the antigen. Additionally, it elicits high amounts of IgG-type antibodies an much less of IgE-type (reaginic) antibodies.13
While having similar properties to alum salts, calcium phosphate has the advantage that it is a natural compound to the human body and is therefore exceptionally well tolerated. It has a reasonable capacity to adsorb antigens, induces high levels of IgG antibodies and does not increase IgE production. Neurological reactions to pertussis vaccines adsorbed to calcium phosphate are rare.14
Last updated: 6/9/13
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4. Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants: Are they Safe?Tomljenovic et al. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2011, 18, 2630-2637
5. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
Lucija Tomljenovic et al. 2011, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Lucija Tomljenovic et al. 2011, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
6. P. Charney, The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) Aluminum Task Force, "A.S.P.E.N. Statement on Aluminum in Parenteral Nutrition Solutions," Nutrition in Clinical Practice 19 (August 2004): 416-417.
7. Blood Volume Calculator
8. Baby Weight & Length Charts
9. Aluminum Toxicity
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11. TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR ALUMINUM
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13. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS IN VACCINESViera Scheibner, Ph.D. Ó 2000. Nexus Dec 2000 (Vol 8, No1) & Feb 2001 (Vol 8, Number 2)
14. Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends
15. Immunisation Handbook 2011, Ministry of Health NZ
16. MeNZB, Meningococcal group B Vaccine Data Sheet
17.Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction. Couette M, et al, INSERM, Unite U955, Team 1, Creteil F-94010, France. J Inorg Biochem. 2009 Nov;103(11):1571-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.08.005. Epub 2009 Aug 20.
18.Vocal fold deposits in macrophagic myofasciitis – Case Report. Fergal Glynn et al, 2007
19.Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. R. K. Gherardi et al, Brain (2001) 124 (9): 1821-1831.
20. Chronic epileptic foci in monkeys: correlation between seizure frequency and proportion of pacemaker epileptic neurons.
Wyler AR, Burchiel KJ, Ward AA Jr. Epilepsia. 1978 Oct;19(5):475-83.
21. Focal experimental epilepsy in rabbits. Bostantjopoulou S et al, Funct Neurol. 1990 Apr-Jun;5(2):127-33. 2nd University Department of Neurology, Ahepa Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
22. THE ORIENTING REFLEX IN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY Radu ROGOZEA and Viorica FLOREA-CIOCOIU, ACTA NEUROBIOL. EXP. 1976, 36: 359-371. Institute of Neurology and Psychiatry, Bucharest, Romania
23. Behavioral and electrical correlates of absence seizures induced by thalamic stimulation in juvenile rhesus monkeys with frontal aluminum hydroxide implants: a pharmacologic evaluation.David J, Marathe SB, Patil SD, Grewal RS. J Pharmacol Methods. 1982 May;7(3):219-29.
24. Influenza vaccine and autoimmunity – Editorial, Nancy Agmon-Levin MD, IMAJ 2009;11:183–185
25. Vaccines and autoimmunity – Opinion Piece but cites many studies, Nancy Agmon-Levin, et al. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 5, 648–652 (2009)
26. 'ASIA' e Autoimmune/inﬂammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, Yehuda Shoenfeld et al, 2010
27. The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work? Christopher Exly et al, 2010 http://wenku.baidu.com/view/2eb5008084868762caaed5d1.html
28.Aluminum Neurotoxicity in Preterm Infants Receiving Intravenous-Feeding Solutions
Nicholas J. Bishop, M.D., et al, N Engl J Med 1997; 336:1557-1562 May 29, 1997
29. Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice
Michael S. Petrik et al, 2006, NeuroMolecular Medicine, ISSN1535-1084/07/09:83–100
30. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study
Laura Hewitson1, et al, Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 147–164 Polish Neuroscience Society - PTBUN, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology
31. Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa1-6 cells
Apoptosis. 2012 Jan 17. Hamza H, et al. Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding, and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China
32. A positive association found between Autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population, Gayle DeLong , 2011 J Tox Env Health.pdf
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Entropy, November 7, 2012. Stephanie Seneff, Robert M. Davidson and Jingjing Liu
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38. INFANRIX hexa® PRODUCT MONOGRAPH
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C A Shaw et al. Immunol Res (2013) 56:304-316
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occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report
occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report
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