Herd Immunity

The Implausibility of Vaccine-Based Herd Immunity

The phrase "herd immunity" is tossed a lot these days. I've often seen it used as ammunition against parents who choose not to vaccinate, with something along the lines of, "the only reason your unvaccinated child is so healthy is because those of us who vaccinate are keeping disease rates down". Is this really true? I decided to dig deeper to find out.

Herd immunity requires the assurance that a large percentage of the ‘herd’ (population) is immune and therefore unable to pass on disease. The theory is based on natural immunity, which provides lifelong or long term immunity. [1] Whether vaccination can be substituted for natural immunity when considering herd immunity, is an entirely different question.

Just how effective a vaccine is at providing immunity, is very difficult to gauge. Vaccination provides essentially a half-hearted immune response to infection. It may often provide a strong antibody reaction, but unfortunately provides a very poor innate immune response. [2] Nevertheless, traditionally vaccine effectiveness has primarily been based on antibody levels produced by the body in response to the injected pathogen, and the fact that vaccines illicit a poor innate immune response has largely been ignored.

However, recent research has thrown the traditional theory that antibodies are required for immunity into disarray. It is now known that antibody levels cannot accurately predict immunity. A person can have high levels of antibodies but still become infected, and conversely a person can have low levels of antibodies but not become infected. In fact, in 2012 Moseman et al revealed that antibodies were not even required to gain immunity and that antibodies elicited by vaccines could not by themselves provide adequate immunity. [3]

Pollard et al (2009) noted that children vaccinated with the Hib conjugate vaccine still suffered from Hib disease despite the presence of B-cell immunological memory:
"These children mount a memory immune response to infection but still suffer from Hib disease, which supports our view that the presence of immunological memory does not guarantee protection. These observations strongly suggest that B-cell memory (the kind of immune memory induced via vaccination) might not be as important as longlasting antibodies (T-cell memory cells induced via natural infection) for long-term protection against a rapidly invasive pathogen." [3a]

The immune system as a whole needs to work together, as it does in response to natural infection; something vaccines have to date been unable to achieve.

Despite this, vaccine manufacturers continue to use inadequate antibody testing to rate their products effectiveness. As inadequate and variable as antibody-based immunity conferred by vaccines is, it is further subject to rapid decline soon after vaccine administration, in some cases even after numerous boosters. In 2012 Klein et al studied the waning effect of the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine and discovered: “The risk of pertussis increased by 42% each year after the fifth DTaP dose.” [4] In stark contrast, in 2009 Wearing et al determined that , on average, whooping cough immunity lasts at least 30 years and perhaps as long as 70 years after natural infection. [5]

It’s no surprise then that vaccines are often demonstrated to be ineffective in real world situations. For example numerous outbreaks of measles, mumps, whooping cough, chicken pox, influenza, and polio have been documented in highly vaccination populations. [6-23, 24-27, 28-35, 36-40, 41-62, 63-64]

In 2009 researchers Witt et al. examined whooping cough incidence in California, and concluded:
"Our data suggests that the current schedule of acellular pertussis vaccine doses is insufficient to prevent outbreaks of pertussis." [65a]

Likewise, in 2013 researchers Sala-Farré et al. studied whooping cough incidence in Vallès and concluded:
"Despite high levels of vaccination coverage, pertussis circulation cannot be controlled at all. The results question the efficacy of the present immunization programmes." [65b]

In addition, the Centers for Disease Control has admitted that unvaccinated people are NOT the cause of recent whooping cough incidence:
"Even though children who haven't received DTaP vaccines are at least 8 times more likely to get pertussis than children who received all 5 recommended doses of DTaP, they are not the driving force behind the large scale outbreaks or epidemics...We often see people blaming pertussis outbreaks on people coming to the US from other counties. This is not the case. Pertussis was never eliminated from the US like measles or polio, so there's always the chance for it to get into a community. Plus, every country vaccinates against pertussis." [65c]

Dr. Anne Schuchat, the director of the CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases further explains the recent increase in whooping cough incidence:
“Better diagnosis and reporting of whooping cough may be contributing to the increased numbers, along with the fact that the disease tends to peak and wane in cycles. It does not appear that anti-vaccination sentiment among parents has contributed…” [65d]

While lack of effectiveness constitutes one major problem with vaccination, an even worse complication actually implicates vaccination as a cause of disease epidemics. The current acellular whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine was shown by researchers Warfel et al. to create the illusion of immunity by exhibiting no symptoms in the vaccine recipient, when in fact the recipient was infected and spreading the infection to those around them. [65] Even though vaccine recipients had adequate levels of antibodies to be considered ‘immune’ by vaccine standards, it did not stop the infection persisting in the host or spreading it to others. [65] The researchers concluded:
"The observation that acellular pertussis, which induces an immune response mismatched to that induced by natural infection, fails to prevent colonization or transmission provides a plausible explanation for the resurgence of pertussis and suggests that optimal control of pertussis will require the development of improved vaccines." [65]
The risks associated with the acellular whooping cough vaccine, which has been in use since 1991 [68], have been known as early as 2000. [69] Yet no recall of the vaccine was made, and the cause of reported whooping cough cases continued to be blamed on unvaccinated children. Why this problem wasn’t caught during preliminary testing before licensure of the vaccine is also cause for concern.

Other vaccines have also proven to be problematic. The chicken pox (varicella) and rotavirus vaccines have been documented numerous times causing infection in vaccine recipients and spreading the infection to others. The chicken pox vaccine has also been documented multiple times causing herpes zoster, a related virus with 3 times the morbidity and 5 times the mortality of varicella, in vaccine recipients. [69-93, 94-100]

The measles vaccine may also suffer from a similar problem to the chicken pox and rotavirus vaccines. Researchers Valsamakis et al (1999) studied how the vaccine-based measles virus changed over time when allowed to replicate for an extended period of time in human tissue. They discovered that it grew in strength, evolving back to a strength similar to that of the wild-type measles virus from which it was derived. The researchers warned that individuals with immune deficiency may suffer adverse outcomes if vaccinated, as they may be unable to clear the original, weakened, vaccine-based measles virus, allowing the virus to replicate for an extended period of time and grow to full strength. [101]

Rota et al (1995) found that the measles virus was shed in 14 of the 16 measles vaccine recipients tested:
"Measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination." [103]

While viral shedding of the live measles vaccine is one concern, another is the risk of infection and subsequent shedding after a vaccinated person has been exposed to a wild measles virus (or a vaccine measles virus that has mutated back to full strength).

Damien et al (1998) found that people who are traditionally considered immune to measles (have produced sufficient amounts of antibodies) can still harbour the measles virus without showing outward symptoms and theoretically spread it to others. This phenomenon is known as an asymptomatic secondary immune response. It applies to both those who have acquired immunity through natural infection or through vaccination, however those who are vaccinated are 5-8 times more susceptible to this response. [102]

After an investigation of a measles outbreak in a highly vaccination school population, Matson et al (1993) found that even after revaccination of school children who did not develop antibodies to their initial measles vaccination, susceptibility to measles infection still remained high (albeit without the appearance of a rash):
"Revaccination appeared to reduce the portion of all students with neutralization titers predicting susceptibility to measles illness with rash from 7.9% to 3.0% and left the portion predicted to be susceptible to illness without rash unchanged (45%)." [104]

Helfand et al (1998) examined the effects of a measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated school population and concluded:
"Mild or asymptomatic measles infections are probably very common among measles-immune persons exposed to measles cases and may be the most common manifestation of measles during outbreaks in highly immune populations." [105]

Stittelaar et al (2002) get straight to the point in their study, "Vaccination against measles: a neverending story", stating:
"...the current vaccine protects against measles but not necessarily against MV infection."[105a]

Hudgens, et al (2004) reiterate the point in their study, "Endpoints in vaccine trials":
"...vaccines for rubella, mumps, measles, and polio have been shown to prevent disease, but not infection."[105b]

The World Health Organization also state:
"Many vaccines are primarily intended to prevent disease and do not necessarily protect against infection." [105c]
They go on to state that just two vaccines, the HPV and Hep A vaccine, possibly have the ability to prevent infection.

These results are not surprising given that vaccines that are injected, such as the MMR, do not stimulate mucosal immunity.[2] However the mucosa is precisely where the majority of infections reside.[106] So while vaccine recipients are usually protected from severe symptoms such as a rash or fever, many are still susceptible to infection, and will pass the infection on to those around them.[102]

This completely shatters any illusion that at least these particular vaccines can provide herd immunity. It implicates the current whooping cough, chicken pox, rotavirus, and possibly the mesasles vaccines as a cause of disease resurgence. The fact that antibodies alone have been shown unable to confer adequate immunity to pathogens calls into question the use of vaccination as a whole, as vaccine based immunity is primarily based on antibody production.

For these reasons, it is my opinion, that vaccination cannot in good conscience be used in the context of herd immunity. Until safer and more effective vaccines become available it seems a gamble to assume that vaccine recipients are truly immune.

Sources:
1. Herd immunity and measles.
Fox JP. Rev Infect Dis. 1983 May-Jun;5(3):463-6.

2. Vaccine immunology
Claire-Anne Siegrist

3. B cell maintenance of subcapsular sinus macrophages protects against a fatal viral infection independent of adaptive immunity. Moseman EA et al. Immunity. 2012 Mar 23;36(3):415-26.

3a. Maintaining protection against invasive bacteria with protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines
Andrew J. Pollard et al. Nature Reviews, Immunology Volume 9, MARCH 2009, 213

4. Waning Protection after Fifth Dose of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Children
Nicola P. Klein et al. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1012-1019September 13

5. Estimating the Duration of Pertussis Immunity Using Epidemiological Signatures.
Wearing et al. PLoS Pathogens, 2009; 5 (10): e1000647

6. Velicko I, Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6980-5. Epub 2008 Sep 19.

7. Follin P, Effective control measures limited measles outbreak after extensive nosocomial exposures in January-February 2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Euro Surveill. 2008 Jul 24;13(30). pii: 18937.

8. Matson DO, et al, Pediatr Infect Dis J; 12(4): 292-9. -- 1993- 4- 1

9. Jahan S, Measles outbreak in Qassim, Saudi Arabia 2007: epidemiology and evaluation of outbreak response, J Public Health (Oxf); 2008 Dec;30(4):384-90

10. Yeung LF, Lurie P, A limited measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated US boarding school. Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. LYeung@cdc.gov, Pediatrics. 2005 Dec;116(6):1287-91

11.MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), 38 (8-9), 12/29/89.

12. Pedersen IR, et al, Vaccine; 7(4):345-8. -- 1998- 8- 1

13. DCD; MMWR / 46(49); 1159-1163 -- 1997-12-12

14. Anders, Jennifer F. MD, Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 15(1):62-66 -- 1996- 1- 1

15. Hidaka Y, et al, Scand J Infect Dis; 26(6):725-30. -- 1994- 1- 1

16. G Ozanne et al, J Clin Microbiol; 30(7): 1778-1782 -- 1992- 7- 1

17. B S Hersh, et al, Am J Public Health; 81(3): 360–364 -- 1991- 3- 1

18. Chen ,R et al, American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 129, No. 1: 173-182 1989 -- 1989- 1- 1

19. TL Gustafson, et al, New England Journal of Medicine Volume 316:771-774 Number 13 -- 1987- 3-26

20. Gustafson TL, NEJM, 316:771-774. -- 1987- 3- 1

21. Ronald M. Davis, et al, American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 126, No. 3: 438-449 1987 -- 1987- 1- 1

22. Steven G. F. Wassilak, et al, American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 122, No. 2: 208- 217 -- 1985- 1- 1

23. Cherry JD, et al, J Pediatr; 82(5):802-8. -- 1973- 5- 1

24. Anderson, LJ, Mumps epidemiology and immunity: the anatomy of a modern epidemic, Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2008 Oct;27 (10-suppl):S75-9

25. Boxall N, An increase in the number of mumps cases in Czech Republic, 2005-2006, Euro Surveill; 2008 Apr 17;13(16)

26. Hersh BS, et al, J Pediatr; 119(2):187-93. -- 1991- 8- 1

27. Salmón-Mulanovich G, Rapid response to a case of mumps: implications for preventing transmission at a medical research facility. Salud Publica Mex. 2009 Jan-Feb;51(1):34-8.C

29. Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model. Jason M. Warfel, et al. 10.1073/pnas.1314688110

30. The 1993 epidemic of pertussis in Cincinnati. Resurgence of disease in a highly immunized population of children. Christie CD et al. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 7;331(1):16-21. PMID: 8202096. Study Type : Human Study

31. Outbreak of pertussis in a fully immunized adolescent and adult population.
Mink CA, et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994 Feb;148(2):153-7. PMID: 8118532

32. Pertussis infection in fully vaccinated children in day-care centers, Israel.
Srugo I et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Sep-Oct;6(5):526-9. PMID: 10998384. Study Type : Human Study

33. Infant pertussis epidemiology and implications for tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination: King County, Washington, 2002 through 2007. Hanson MP et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Jul ;165(7):647-52. PMID: 21727277. Study Type : Human Study

34. A field survey carried out on the confirmation of a pertussis case in a village of Kirikkale Province, Turkey. Coplü N, et al. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2007 Apr;41(2):175-83. PMID: 17682703

35. Author Insights: Higher Pertussis Rates in Children Vaccinated With Newer Pertussis Vaccine
Bridget M Kuehn. JULY 31, 2012

36. Chickenpox outbreak in a highly vaccinated school population.
Tugwell BD, et al. Pediatrics. 2004 Mar;113(3 Pt 1):455-9.

37. Younger age at vaccination may increase risk of varicella vaccine failure.
Galil K, et al. J Infect Dis.2002;186 :102– 105

38. Outbreak of varicella at a day-care center despite vaccination.
Galil K, et al. N Engl J Med.2002;347 :1909– 1915

39. An elementary school outbreak of varicella attributed to vaccine failure: policy implications.
Lee BR, et al. J Infect Dis.2004;190 :477– 483

40. Vaccine Effectiveness During a Varicella Outbreak Among Schoolchildren: Utah, 2002–2003
Maryam B. Haddad et al. PEDIATRICS Vol. 115 No. 6 June 1, 2005. pp. 1488 -1493

41. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006-2007 season.
Belongia EA, et al. J Infect Dis. 2009 Jan 15;199(2):159-67.PMID: 19086915.

42. Effectiveness of the 2003-2004 influenza vaccine among children 6 months to 8 years of age, with 1 vs 2 doses.
Ritzwoller DP, et al. Pediatrics. 2005 Jul;116(1):153-9.

43. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy in preventing hospitalizations and outpatient visits for respiratory illness in pregnant women and their infants. Black SB, et al. Am J Perinatol. 2004 Aug;21(6):333-9. PMID: 15311370

44. Effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in influenza-related hospitalization in children: A case-control study. Authors: Joshi, Avni Y et al, Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Volume 33, Number 2, March/April 2012 , pp. e23-e27(5)

45. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Osterholm MT et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;12(1):36-44.PMID: 22032844. Study Type : Meta Analysis

46. Evidence of bias in estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in seniors
Lisa A Jackson et al. Int. J. Epidemiol. (April 2006) 35 (2): 337-344.

47. Further Evidence for Bias in Observational Studies of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic
Michael L. Jackson et al. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2013)

48. Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the US elderly population.
Simonsen L et al. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Feb 14;165(3):265-72. PMID: 15710788. Study Type : Human Study

49. Impact of maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy on the incidence of acute respiratory illness visits among infants.
France EK, et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec;160(12):1277-83.

50. Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: A Critical Assessment of the Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). David M. Ayoub, M.D., F. Edward Yazbak, M.D, Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 11 Number 2 Summer 2006

51. Influenza vaccination for healthcare workers who work with the elderly. Thomas RE et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(2):CD005187. PMID:20166073. Study Type : Meta Analysis

52. Influenza vaccination for healthcare workers who work with the elderly.
Thomas RE et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 ;3:CD005187. Epub 2006 Jul 19. PMID:16856082. Study Type : Meta Analysis

53. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among children 6 to 59 months of age during 2 influenza seasons: a case-cohort study. Szilagyi PG,et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Oct;162(10):943-51. New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

54. Influenza Vaccine: Review of Effectiveness of the U.S. Immunization Program, and Policy Considerations
David A. Geier, B.A., et al. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 11 Number 3 Fall 2006. Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, Inc.

55. Influenza-related mortality in the Italian elderly: no decline associated with increasing vaccination coverage. Rizzo C et al. Vaccine. 2006 Oct 30;24(42-43):6468-75. PMID: 16876293. Study Type : Human Study

56. Interim within-season estimate of the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine--Marshfield, Wisconsin, 2007-08 influenza season.
CDC. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Apr 18;57(15):393-8. PMID: 18418344

57. No effect of 2008/09 seasonal influenza vaccination on the risk of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England. Pebody R, et al. Vaccine. 2011 Jan 31. Epub 2011 Jan 31. PMID: 21292008.
Study Type : Meta Analysis

58. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults
Tom Jefferson et al, 2010, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub4

59. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children.
Jefferson T et al. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):44-6. PMID: 18425905.
Study Type : Meta Analysis

60. Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with cystic fibrosis.
Dharmaraj P et al. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/there-currently-no-evidence-randomised-studies-influenza-vaccine-given-people-cf-benefitCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD001753. PMID: 19821281
ArtiStudy Type : Meta Analysis

61. Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly.
Jefferson T et al. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/there-no-solid-evidence-available-supporting-belief-vaccines-are-effectiveCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(2):CD004876. Epub 2010 Feb 17. PMID:20166072. Study Type : Meta Analysis

62. What, in Fact, Is the Evidence That Vaccinating Healthcare Workers against Seasonal Influenza Protects Their Patients? A Critical Review.
Zvi Howard Abramson et al, Int J Family Med. 2012; 2012: 205464.

63. Lancet vol 338: Sept 21, 1991; 715-720.

64. Hawk, J, Science and Development Network -- 2006- 8-22

65. Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model. Jason M. Warfel et al. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314688110
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/11/20/1314688110.abstract

65a. Unexpectedly limited durability of immunity following acellular pertussis vaccination in preadolescents in a North American outbreak.
Witt MA, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(12):1730-5. PMID: 22423127
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22423127

65b. Pertussis epidemic despite high levels of vaccination coverage with acellular pertussis vaccine.
Sala-Farré MR, et al. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2013 Nov 8. pii: S0213-005X(13)00298-X.

65c. Whooping Cough
http://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/about/faqs.html#travelers

65c. CDC: Whooping Cough Heading to a 50-Year High
http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20120719/cdc-whooping-cough-heading-to-5-decade-high

66. Cute as a Button, but tiny Isla was close to death
Mandy Squires. 14 march 2012. Herald Sun

67. Antibody Response Patterns to Bordetella pertussis Antigens in Vaccinated (Primed) and Unvaccinated (Unprimed) Young Children with Pertussis[down-pointing small open triangle]
James D. Cherry et al. CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY, May 2010, p. 741–747 Vol. 17, No. 5

68. Pertussis Vaccination: Use of Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Among Infants and Young Children Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

69. Acyclovir-resistant chronic verrucous vaccine strain varicella in a patient with neuroblastoma.
Bryan CJ, rt al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Oct;27(10):946-8. PMID: 18776818

70. Development of Resistance to Acyclovir during Chronic Infection with the Oka Vaccine Strain of Varicella-Zoster Virus, in an Immunosuppressed Child. Myron J. Levin et al. J Infect Dis. (2003) 188 (7): 954-959.

71. Chickenpox attributable to a vaccine virus contracted from a vaccinee with zoster.
Brunell PA et al. PEDIATRICS Vol. 106 No. 2 August 1, 2000 pp. e28

72. Disseminated varicella infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus, in a patient with a novel deficiency in natural killer T cells. Levy O, et al. J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;188(7):948-53.

73. DNA sequence variability in isolates recovered from patients with postvaccination rash or herpes zoster caused by Oka varicella vaccine. Loparev VN, et al. J Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15;195(4):502-10.

74. Herpes zoster after varicella-zoster vaccination
Fahlbusch M, et al. Hautarzt. 2013 Feb;64(2):107-9. PMID: 23358727

75. Genetic Profile of an Oka Varicella Vaccine Virus Variant Isolated from an Infant with Zoster
Andreas Sauerbrei et al. J. Clin. Microbiol. December 2004 vol. 42 no. 12 5604-5608

76. Herpes zoster and meningitis due to reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child.
Han JY, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Mar;30(3):266-8. PMID: 20844461

77. Herpes zoster and meningitis resulting from reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child.
Iyer S, et al. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Jun;53(6):792-5. PMID: 19028409

78. Herpes zoster by reactivated vaccine varicella zoster virus in a healthy child
Barbara Uebe, et al. European Journal of Pediatrics 2002, Vol 161, Issue 8, pp 442-444

79. Herpes zoster due to Oka vaccine strain of varicella zoster virus in an immunosuppressed child post cord blood transplant.
Chan Y, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2007 Oct;43(10):713-5.

80. Herpes zoster with skin lesions and meningitis caused by 2 different genotypes of the Oka varicella-zoster virus vaccine.
Levin MJ, et al. J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 15;198(10):1444-7.

81. Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults.
Gershon AA, et al. Pediatrics. 1986 Oct;78(4 Pt 2):757-62.

82. Rashes occurring after immunization with a mixture of viruses in the Oka vaccine are derived from single clones of virus.
Quinlivan ML, et al. J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15;190(4):793-6. PMID: 15272408

83. Secondary transmission of varicella vaccine virus in a chronic care facility for children.
Grossberg R, et al. J Pediatr. 2006;148: 842– 844

84. Severe Varicella Caused by Varicella-Vaccine Strain in a Child With Significant T-Cell Dysfunction
Patrick Jean-Philippe et al. PEDIATRICS Volume 120, Number 5, November 2007

85. The incidence of zoster after immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine. A study in children with leukemia. Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group. Hardy I, et al. N Engl J Med. 1991 Nov 28;325(22):1545-50.

86. Transmission of vaccine strain varicella-zoster virus from a healthy adult with vaccine-associated rash to susceptible household contacts. LaRussa P, et al. J Infect Dis. (1997) 176 (4): 1072-1075.

87. Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan
Taketo Otsuka et al, Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 October; 15(10): 1702–1703. PMCID: PMC2866412

88. Transmission of varicella-vaccine virus from a healthy 12-month-old child to his pregnant mother.
Salzman MB et al. Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):77-82. PMID: 9255208. Study Type : Human Study

89. Transmission of varicella-zoster virus from a vaccinee with leukemia, demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction.
A Hughes P, et al. J Pediatr. 1994 Jun;124(6):932-5.

90. Vaccine Oka Variants and Sequence Variability in Vaccine-Related Skin Lesions
Judith Breuer et al. J Infect Dis. (2008) 197 (Supplement 2): S54-S57.

91. Vaccine Oka Varicella-Zoster Virus Genotypes Are Monomorphic in Single Vesicles and Polymorphic in Respiratory Tract Secretions. Mark A. Quinlivan et al. J Infect Dis. (2006) 193 (7): 927-930.

92. Vaccine-associated herpes zoster opthalmicus and encephalitis in an immunocompetent child. Chouliaras G et al. Pediatrics. 2010 Apr;125(4):e969-72. Epub 2010 Mar 1. PMID: 20194287. Study Type : Human Study

93. Virus Variant Isolated from an Infant with Zoster
Andreas Sauerbrei, et al. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2004, 42(12):5604.

94. Identification of strains of RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine in infants with gastroenteritis following routine vaccination. Donato CM, et al. J Infect Dis. 2012 Aug 1;206(3):377-83.

95. Sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Payne DC, et al. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125(2):e438-41. PMID: 20100758

96. Symptomatic infection and detection of vaccine and vaccine-reassortant rotavirus strains in 5 children: a case series. Boom JA, et al. J Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;206(8):1275-9. PMID: 22872730

97. Vaccine-derived human-bovine double reassortant rotavirus in infants with acute gastroenteritis.
Hemming M, Vesikari T. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Sep;31(9):992-4. PMID: 22581224

98. Vaccine-derived NSP2 segment in rotaviruses from vaccinated children with gastroenteritis in Nicaragua. Bucardo F, et al. Infect Genet Evol. 2012 Aug;12(6):1282-94. PMID: 22487061

99. Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission.
Anderson EJ. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Oct;8(10):642-9. PMID: 18922486

100. The Case against Universal Varicella Vaccination
Gary S. Goldman. International Journal of Toxicology, 25:313–317, 2006

101. Altered Virulence of Vaccine Strains of Measles Virus after Prolonged Replication in Human Tissue
Alexandra Valsamakis et al. J Virol. 1999 October; 73(10): 8791–8797.

102. Estimated susceptibility to asymptomatic secondary immune response against measles in late convalescent and vaccinated persons.
Damien B, et al. J Med Virol. 1998 Sep;56(1):85-90. PMID: 9700638

103. Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Urine Specimens from Vaccine Recipients
PAUL A. ROTA, et al. J CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Sept. 1995, p. 2485–2488 Vol. 33, No. 9

104. Investigation of a measles outbreak in a fully vaccinated school population including serum studies before and after revaccination.
Matson DO et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993 Apr;12(4):292-9. PMID: 8483623

105. Nonclassic measles infections in an immune population exposed to measles during a college bus trip. Helfand RF et al. J Med Virol. 1998 Dec;56(4):337-41. PMID: 9829639

105a. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story
Koert J Stittelaar et al. Expert Rev. Vaccines 1(2), 151–159 (2002).

105b. Endpoints in vaccine trials
Michael G Hudgens, et al.  Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2004; 13: 1^26

105c. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide.
FE Andre et al. Bulletin of the World Health Organization,  Feb 2008, Vol 86, Number 2, 81-160

106. Measles virus infection cycle. Immunopaedia

You Might Also Like

0 comments